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Nobel Prize in Medicine, awarded for the discovery of the hepatitis C virus

The Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded jointly to an American-British trio, consisting of Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton and Charles M. Rice, for the discovery of the hepatitis C virus.

The Nobel Assembly said in a press release on Monday that the three scientists “made fundamental discoveries that led to the identification of a new virus.”

He said the trio “made a decisive contribution to the fight against blood-borne hepatitis, a major global health problem that causes cirrhosis and liver cancer worldwide.”

Globally, an estimated 71 million people are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus, according to the World Health Organization. A significant number of those who are chronically infected will develop cirrhosis or liver cancer.

Gilbert Thompson, professor emeritus of clinical lipidology at Imperial College London, told CNN: â € œItâ € TMs long overdue. Hepatitis C has caused as many, if not more, deaths than the current coronavirus pandemic. It was a major problem and this work was a huge step forward.

Methodical studies of transfusion-associated hepatitis, conducted by American scientist Alter, have shown that an unknown virus was a common cause of chronic hepatitis.

Houghton, a British scientist, has used an as yet untested strategy to isolate the genome of a new virus called Hepatitis C.

Rice, another American, provided final evidence that the hepatitis C virus can cause hepatitis.

Alfred Nobel – the inventor of dynamite – created in 1895 a fund to give most of his fortune to those who serve mankind. Today, the Nobel Prize recognizes outstanding achievements in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, peace, and the economic sciences. Between 1901 and 2019, almost 600 prizes were awarded.

Categories
Recent

Nobel Prize in Medicine, awarded for the discovery of the hepatitis C virus

The Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded jointly to an American-British trio, consisting of Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton and Charles M. Rice, for the discovery of the hepatitis C virus.

The Nobel Assembly said in a press release on Monday that the three scientists “made fundamental discoveries that led to the identification of a new virus.”

He said the trio “made a decisive contribution to the fight against blood-borne hepatitis, a major global health problem that causes cirrhosis and liver cancer worldwide.”

Globally, an estimated 71 million people are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus, according to the World Health Organization. A significant number of those who are chronically infected will develop cirrhosis or liver cancer.

Gilbert Thompson, professor emeritus of clinical lipidology at Imperial College London, told CNN: â € œItâ € TMs long overdue. Hepatitis C has caused as many, if not more, deaths than the current coronavirus pandemic. It was a major problem and this work was a huge step forward.

Methodical studies of transfusion-associated hepatitis, conducted by American scientist Alter, have shown that an unknown virus was a common cause of chronic hepatitis.

Houghton, a British scientist, has used an as yet untested strategy to isolate the genome of a new virus called Hepatitis C.

Rice, another American, provided final evidence that the hepatitis C virus can cause hepatitis.

Alfred Nobel – the inventor of dynamite – created in 1895 a fund to give most of his fortune to those who serve mankind. Today, the Nobel Prize recognizes outstanding achievements in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, peace, and the economic sciences. Between 1901 and 2019, almost 600 prizes were awarded.

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NASA has found ancient rivers on an asteroid

On October 20, NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft will attempt to collect a few pieces of material from the surface of Bennu, a small asteroid about Earth, about 500 meters wide. height.

Before throwing themselves down into the surface of space science, scientists think about the most pertinent assumptions about what they will find. According to the latest research, as detailed in a number of new research papers, scientists are expected to find carbonate, a material that is often deposited by water on Earth. .

Observing the new research, using the visible and infrared spectrometer of OSIRIS-REx, they discovered “carbonate veins” on the surface of Bennu. This could mean that Bennu's “father”, probably a much larger planetoid or proto-planet, had an “asteroid-scale water hydrothermal system,” according to a statement. In other words, ancient rivers.

“If the veins on Bennu are carbonaceous, fluid flow and hydrothermal deposition on Bennu's parent's body would have occurred on stairs thousands of kilometers to millions of years,” he concluded. The team is led by Hannah Kaplan of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.

They suggest that water may have seeped through the cracks on the surface of Bennu's father, leaving traces of carbonate. Some of these traces could once have explained the water flows that cover large areas.

“One of the driving forces behind this mission is that these asteroids could have released some of the precursor to the organic matter that gave birth to life on Earth,” Kaplan told Popular Science. Scientists have also discovered that the regiment near Nightingale Crater, the site where OSIRIS-REx will penetrate, was recently exposed in space, giving us the best image of information about Bennu's story.

“The abundance of carbon-bearing materials is a major scientific triumph for the mission,” Dante Lauretta, OSIRIS-REx principal investigator at the University of Arizona in Tucson, said in a NASA statement. “We are now optimistic that we will collect and return a sample of organic material – a central goal of the OSIRIS-REx mission.”

A striking picture of Bennu shows that the rocks that make up its surface are much more diverse than we initially thought. This diversity indicates the presence of a variety of different materials that originally made Bennu from his “father”.

Categories
Recent

NASA has found ancient rivers on an asteroid

On October 20, NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft will attempt to collect a few pieces of material from the surface of Bennu, a small asteroid about Earth, about 500 meters wide. height.

Before throwing themselves down into the surface of space science, scientists think about the most pertinent assumptions about what they will find. According to the latest research, as detailed in a number of new research papers, scientists are expected to find carbonate, a material that is often deposited by water on Earth. .

Observing the new research, using the visible and infrared spectrometer of OSIRIS-REx, they discovered “carbonate veins” on the surface of Bennu. This could mean that Bennu's “father”, probably a much larger planetoid or proto-planet, had an “asteroid-scale water hydrothermal system,” according to a statement. In other words, ancient rivers.

“If the veins on Bennu are carbonaceous, fluid flow and hydrothermal deposition on Bennu's parent's body would have occurred on stairs thousands of kilometers to millions of years,” he concluded. The team is led by Hannah Kaplan of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.

They suggest that water may have seeped through the cracks on the surface of Bennu's father, leaving traces of carbonate. Some of these traces could once have explained the water flows that cover large areas.

“One of the driving forces behind this mission is that these asteroids could have released some of the precursor to the organic matter that gave birth to life on Earth,” Kaplan told Popular Science. Scientists have also discovered that the regiment near Nightingale Crater, the site where OSIRIS-REx will penetrate, was recently exposed in space, giving us the best image of information about Bennu's story.

“The abundance of carbon-bearing materials is a major scientific triumph for the mission,” Dante Lauretta, OSIRIS-REx principal investigator at the University of Arizona in Tucson, said in a NASA statement. “We are now optimistic that we will collect and return a sample of organic material – a central goal of the OSIRIS-REx mission.”

A striking picture of Bennu shows that the rocks that make up its surface are much more diverse than we initially thought. This diversity indicates the presence of a variety of different materials that originally made Bennu from his “father”.

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How fast is sound transmitted through the Universe? Physicists finally have an answer

Einstein's theory of special relativity sets the absolute speed limit at which a wave can travel as the speed of light, equal to about 300,000 km per second.

Until recently, it was not known whether sound waves also have an upper speed limit when passing through solids or fluids.

A study by scientists at Queen Mary's University in London in collaboration with the University of Cambridge and the Institute of High Pressure Physics in Troitsk found the fastest possible speed of sound.

The result – about 36 km per second – is about twice as fast as the speed of sound from diamond, the densest material known in the world.

They approached a specific prediction of their theory that the speed of sound should decrease with the mass of the atom. This prediction implies that sound is the fastest in solid atomic hydrogen.

However, hydrogen is an atomic solid only at a very high pressure of over 1 million atm (a unit that measures pressure), a pressure comparable to that of the core of gas giants such as Jupiter.

At these pressures, hydrogen becomes a fascinating metallic solid that conducts electricity just as copper does.

Thus, scientists performed state-of-the-art quantum mechanical calculations to test this prediction and found that the sound velocity of solid atomic hydrogen is close to the fundamental theoretical limit.

“Sound waves from solids are already extremely important in many scientific fields. For example, seismologists use sound waves initiated by earthquakes deep inside the Earth to bury them.” ›Understands the nature of seismic events and the properties of the Earth's composition.

Categories
Recent

How fast is sound transmitted through the Universe? Physicists finally have an answer

Einstein's theory of special relativity sets the absolute speed limit at which a wave can travel as the speed of light, equal to about 300,000 km per second.

Until recently, it was not known whether sound waves also have an upper speed limit when passing through solids or fluids.

A study by scientists at Queen Mary's University in London in collaboration with the University of Cambridge and the Institute of High Pressure Physics in Troitsk found the fastest possible speed of sound.

The result – about 36 km per second – is about twice as fast as the speed of sound from diamond, the densest material known in the world.

They approached a specific prediction of their theory that the speed of sound should decrease with the mass of the atom. This prediction implies that sound is the fastest in solid atomic hydrogen.

However, hydrogen is an atomic solid only at a very high pressure of over 1 million atm (a unit that measures pressure), a pressure comparable to that of the core of gas giants such as Jupiter.

At these pressures, hydrogen becomes a fascinating metallic solid that conducts electricity just as copper does.

Thus, scientists performed state-of-the-art quantum mechanical calculations to test this prediction and found that the sound velocity of solid atomic hydrogen is close to the fundamental theoretical limit.

“Sound waves from solids are already extremely important in many scientific fields. For example, seismologists use sound waves initiated by earthquakes deep inside the Earth to bury them.” ›Understands the nature of seismic events and the properties of the Earth's composition.

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The resource in your garden that could power electric cars and more

Much of the childhood of many was inspired by cartoons. But these researchers still seem to be inspired by animals and their professional lives.

Popeye took his energy intake after eating spinach, and scientists thought of applying this principle to the “energy supply” of electric vehicles.

Surprisingly, the results indicated that spinach is not only full of substances beneficial to the human body, but also has properties that make it a potential candidate for fueling vehicles.

Researchers at the Department of Chemistry at the American University (AU) explained that spinach, when transformed from its leafy form into carbon nanowires, acts as a catalyst for a reduction reaction. oxygen in fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

The oxygen reduction reaction is one of two reactions in fuel cells and metal-to-air batteries, and it is usually the one that limits the power of these devices.

Researchers have long known that certain carbon materials can catalyze the reaction. But those carbon-based catalysts do not always work as well or better than traditional platinum-based catalysts.

AU researchers wanted to find a cheap and less toxic preparation method for an efficient catalyst by using natural and easy-to-find resources.

â € œThe method we tested can produce very active carbon-based spinach catalysts, which is a renewable biomass. In addition, we believe that it exceeds commercial platinum catalysts in both activity and stability, ”said Prof. Shouzhong Zou, professor of chemistry at the AU and author. main part of the paper.

Catalysts accelerate the oxygen reduction reaction to produce enough current and create energy.

The next step for researchers is to use catalysts from laboratory simulation in prototype devices, such as hydrogen fuel cells.

Categories
Recent

The resource in your garden that could power electric cars and more

Much of the childhood of many was inspired by cartoons. But these researchers still seem to be inspired by animals and their professional lives.

Popeye took his energy intake after eating spinach, and scientists thought of applying this principle to the “energy supply” of electric vehicles.

Surprisingly, the results indicated that spinach is not only full of substances beneficial to the human body, but also has properties that make it a potential candidate for fueling vehicles.

Researchers at the Department of Chemistry at the American University (AU) explained that spinach, when transformed from its leafy form into carbon nanowires, acts as a catalyst for a reduction reaction. oxygen in fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

The oxygen reduction reaction is one of two reactions in fuel cells and metal-to-air batteries, and it is usually the one that limits the power of these devices.

Researchers have long known that certain carbon materials can catalyze the reaction. But those carbon-based catalysts do not always work as well or better than traditional platinum-based catalysts.

AU researchers wanted to find a cheap and less toxic preparation method for an efficient catalyst by using natural and easy-to-find resources.

â € œThe method we tested can produce very active carbon-based spinach catalysts, which is a renewable biomass. In addition, we believe that it exceeds commercial platinum catalysts in both activity and stability, ”said Prof. Shouzhong Zou, professor of chemistry at the AU and author. main part of the paper.

Catalysts accelerate the oxygen reduction reaction to produce enough current and create energy.

The next step for researchers is to use catalysts from laboratory simulation in prototype devices, such as hydrogen fuel cells.

Categories
Recent

iPhone 12 Pro 12 Pro Max: price, specifications and most important news

The iPhone 12 has been officially unveiled. Apple has introduced four new phones. Two are delivered faster, two slower. Otherwise, prices have remained the same. And there's a new smart speaker.

Below you can find the news presented by Apple during the Hi, Speed event, in livetext format. iPhone 12, both mini and Pro Pro, was the star. And rightly so for the Pro models. You can also watch the official video released by Apple on YouTube.

iPhone SE will be the cheapest iPhone. But the new models, the Pro ones, start at $ 1,000. Pro Max starts at $ 1,100.

The phones will be pre-ordered from October 16. But you should know that Pro Max and mini will be delivered from November 13th, and the others from October 23rd. The 6.1-inch models may still be the most interesting.

iPhone 12 Pro starts at 128 GB of storage space. Thus, if you compare the price (which is the same) with the models of previous years, at least you gain more storage. At the same time, Apple is finally moving to 128 GB as standard.

Finally, Apple and the iPhone Xr ($ 500) and the iPhone 11 ($ 600) remain on offer. All the others are gone.

The LiDAR sensor will also be used for faster focus on pictures. According to official data, the focus is six times faster. Other manufacturers have tried something similar with 3D ToF (Time of Flight) sensors. In the meantime, they began to give up on them.

On LiDAR, the options are quite numerous. It remains to be seen how developers will use this. Augmented reality can only be a component.

Categories
Recent

iPhone 12 Pro 12 Pro Max: price, specifications and most important news

The iPhone 12 has been officially unveiled. Apple has introduced four new phones. Two are delivered faster, two slower. Otherwise, prices have remained the same. And there's a new smart speaker.

Below you can find the news presented by Apple during the Hi, Speed event, in livetext format. iPhone 12, both mini and Pro Pro, was the star. And rightly so for the Pro models. You can also watch the official video released by Apple on YouTube.

iPhone SE will be the cheapest iPhone. But the new models, the Pro ones, start at $ 1,000. Pro Max starts at $ 1,100.

The phones will be pre-ordered from October 16. But you should know that Pro Max and mini will be delivered from November 13th, and the others from October 23rd. The 6.1-inch models may still be the most interesting.

iPhone 12 Pro starts at 128 GB of storage space. Thus, if you compare the price (which is the same) with the models of previous years, at least you gain more storage. At the same time, Apple is finally moving to 128 GB as standard.

Finally, Apple and the iPhone Xr ($ 500) and the iPhone 11 ($ 600) remain on offer. All the others are gone.

The LiDAR sensor will also be used for faster focus on pictures. According to official data, the focus is six times faster. Other manufacturers have tried something similar with 3D ToF (Time of Flight) sensors. In the meantime, they began to give up on them.

On LiDAR, the options are quite numerous. It remains to be seen how developers will use this. Augmented reality can only be a component.